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A Multidisciplinary Bibliography
Social Sciences
History
The Juggler (Conflagration) by Karin Turner True the Black woman did the housework, the drudgery; true, she reared the children, often alone, but she did all of that while occupying a place on the job market, a place her mate could not get or which his pride would not let him accept.And she had nothing to fall back on: not maleness, not whiteness, not ladyhood, not anything. And out of the profound desolation of her reality she may very well have invented herself.
Toni Morrison

History of Black Feminism: Select References

Collins, Patricia Hill."Feminism in the Twentieth Century." In Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. Brooklyn: Carlson, 1993.

Guy-Sheftall, Beverly. ":African American Women: The Legacy of Black Feminism." In Sisterhood is Forever: The Women's Anthology for a New Millennium, New York: Washington Square Press, 2003.

          . "Black Feminism in the United States." In Upon These Shores: Themes in the African American Experience, 1600 to the Present, eds William R. Scott and William G. Shade. Routledge: New York, 2000.

          . "Evolution of Feminist Consciousness Among African American Women." In Words of Fire: An Anthology of African American Feminist Thought, ed. Beverly Guy-Sheftall. New York: New Press, 1995.

Harris, Duchess. "A History of Black American Feminism." In Black Feminist Politics From Kennedy to Clinton. New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2009.

Kelley, Robin D. G. "'This Battlefield Called Life': Black Feminist Dreams". In Freedom Dreams. Boston: Beacon Press, 2002.

Taylor, Ula Y. "The Historical Evolution of Black Feminist Theory and Praxis." Journal of Black Studies 29, no. 2 (November 1998): 234-253.

          . "Making Waves: The Theory and Practice of Black Feminism." Black Scholar 28, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 18+.

Urrutia, Ana M. "The Development of Black Feminism." Human Mosaic: A Journal of the Social Sciences. 28, no. 1 (1994): 26-35.

History: All Aspects
Alexander, Elizabeth. "'We Must Be About Our Father's Business': Anna Julia Cooper and the Incorporation of the Nineteenth-Century African-American Woman Intellectual." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 20, no. 2 (1995): 336-356.

Andolsen, Barbara Hilkert. Daughters of Jefferson, Daughters of Bootblacks: Racism and American Feminism. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1986.

Apthekar, Bettina. "Directions for Scholarship." In African American Women and the Vote, 1837-1965, eds.Ann D. Gordon and Bettye Collier-Thomas, et al. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.

          . "Race and Class: Patriarchal Politics and Women's Experience." Women's Studies International Quarterly nos. 9-10 (1982): 10-15.

          . "Strong is What We Make Each Other: Unlearning Racism Within Women's Studies." Women's Studies Quarterly 9, no. 4 (1981).

          . Women's Legacy: Essays on Race, Sex and Class in American History.Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1982.

Athey, Stephanie. "Eugenic Feminisms in Late Nineteenth-Century America: Reading Race in Victoria Woodhull, Frances Willard, Anna Julia Cooper, and Ida B. Wells." Genders 31 (Spring 2000). http://genders.org/g31/g31_athey.html (Accessed: 04/04/06).

Bailey, Cathryn. "Anna Julia Cooper: Dedicated in the Name of My Slave Mother to the Education of Colored Working People." Hypathia 19, no. 2 (Spring 2004): 56-73.

Baxandall, Rosalyn. "Re-Visioning the Women's Liberation Movement's Narrative: Early Second Wave African American Feminists." Feminist Studies 27, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 225-245.

Blair, Karen J. The Clubwoman as Feminsit: True Womanhood Redefined, 1868-1914. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1980.

Breines, Winifred. "Alone Black Socialist Feminism: and the Combahee River Collective." In The Trouble Betwen Us: An Uneasy History of White and Black Women in the Feminist Movement. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

          . "Struggling to Connect: White and Black Feminsm in the Movement Years." Contexts 6, no. 1 (2007): 19-25.

Breines, Wini. "Sixties Stories' Silences: White Feminism, Black Feminism, Black Power." NWSA Journal 8, no. 3 (Fall 1996): 101-122.

Bridgewater, Pamela D. "Recent Development: Ain't I a Slave: Slavery, Reproductive Abuse, and Reparations." UCLA Women's Law Journal 14 (Fall/Winter 2005): 89+.

Brown, Elsa Barkley. "To Catch the Vision of Freedom: Reconstructing Southern Black Women's Political History, 1865-1880." In African American Women and the Vote, 1837-1965, eds.Ann D. Gordon and Bettye Collier-Thomas, et al. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.

          . "'What Has Happened Here': The Politics of Difference in Women's History and Feminist Politics." Feminist Studies 18, no. 2 (1992): 295-312.

          . "Womanist Consciousness: Maggie Lena Walker and the Independent Order of Saint Luke." In Feminism and History, ed. Joan Wallach Scott. New York: Oxford Universtiy Press, 1996.

Bryan, Dianetta Gail. "Her-story Unsilenced – Black Female Activists in the Civil Rights Movement." Sage 5 (September 1988): 60-64.

Caraway, Nancie. Segregated Sisterhood: Racism and the Politics of American Feminism. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1991.

Carby, Hazel V. "Policing the Black Woman's Body in an Urban Context." In Identities, eds. Kwame Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Originally published in Critical Inquiry 18, no. 4 (1992), 735-755. Reprinted in Cultures in Babylon: Black Britain and African America. (New York: Verso, 1999).

Carroll, Tamar. "Unlikely Allies: Forging a Multiracial, Class-Based Women's Movement in 1970s Brooklyn." In Feminist Coalitions: Historical Perspectives on Second-Wave Feminism in the United States, ed. Stephanie Gilmore. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2008.

Cash, Floris Loretta Barnett. African American Women and Social Action: The Clubwomen and Volunteerism From Jim Crow to the New Deal, 1896-1936. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.

Clinton, Catherine. "White Mischeif." Transition 59 (1993): 130-136.

Collier-Thomas, Bettye and V.P. Franklin, eds. Sisters in the Struggle: African American Women in the Civil Rights-Black Power Movement. New YorK: New York University Press, 2001.

Collins, Patricia Hill. "Feminism in the Twentieth Century." In Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia, ed. Darlene Clark Hine. Brooklyn: Carlson Publishing, 1993.

Crawford, Vicki Lynn. "Grassroots Activists in the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 5, no. 2 (1988): 24-29.

Davis, Angela. "Reflections on the Black Woman's Role in the Community of Slaves." In Words of Fire: An Anthology of African American Feminist Thought, ed.Beverly Guy-Sheftall. New York: New Press, 1995. Originally published in The Black Scholar 3 (December 1971): 2-15.

Davis, Beverly. "To Seize the Moment: A Retrospective on the National Black Feminist Organization." Sage 5 (September 1988): 43-47.

Davis, Elizabeth Lindsay. Lifting as They Climb. New York: G.K. Hall, 1996.

DeCosta-Willis, Miriam. "Smoothing the Tucks in Father's Linen: The Women of Cedar Hill." Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black Women 4, no. 2 (1987): 30-33.

Deggs, Sister Mary Bernard. No Cross, No Crown: Black Nuns in Nineteenth Century New Orleans. Edited by Virginia Meacham Gould and Charles E. Nolan. Bloomington: Indian University Press, 2001.

Des Jardins, Julie. "African American Women's Historical Consciousness." In Women & the Historical Enterprise in America: Gender, Race, and the Politics of Memory, 1880-1945. Chapel, Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

          . "Womanist Consciousness and New Negro History." In Women & the Historical Enterprise in America: Gender, Race, and the Politics of Memory, 1880-1945. Chapel, Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Ferguson, Earline Rae. "African American Clubwomen and the Indianapolis NAACP, 1912-1914." In Stepping Forward: Black Women in Africa and the Americas, eds. Catherine Higgs, Barbara A. Moss, and Earline Rae Ferguson. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2002.

Fitzgerald, Tracy. The National Council of Negro Women and the Feminist Movement, 1935-1975. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1985.

Fleming, Cynthia Griggs. "Black Women Activists and the Student Non-Violent Coordianting Committee: The Case of Ruby Doris Smith Robinson. Journal of Women's History 4 (September 1993): 65-81.

Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth. Within the Plantation Household: Black and White Women of the Old South. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.

Giddings, Paula. "Black Feminism Takes It's Rightful Place." Ms., October 1985.

          . In Search of Sisterhood: Delta Sigma Theta and the Challenge of the Black Sorority Movement. New York: William Morrow and Co., 1988.

          . When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America. New York: William Morrow, 1984.

          . "Woman Warrior: Ida B. Wells, Crusader, Journalist." Essence February 1998, 75-76+

Gilman, Sander. "Black Bodies, White Bodies: Toward an Iconography of Female Sexuality in Late Nineteenth-Century Art, Medicine, and Literature." In Race, Writing, and Difference, ed. by Henry Louis Gates Jr.Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Glass, Kathy. "Tending the Roots: Anna Julia Cooper's Sociopolitical Thought and Activism." Meridians: Feminism, Race, and Transnationalism 6, no. 1(2005): 23-55.

Grasso, Linda M. "Maria Stewart's Inspired Wrath." In The Artistry of Anger: Black and White Women's Literature in America 1820-1860. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

          . "The Text as Courtroom: Judgement, Vengeanance, and Punishment in Harriet Wilsons Our Nig. In The Artistry of Anger: Black and White Women's Literature in America 1820-1860. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Grayson, Sandra M. "Black Women and American Slavery: Forms of Resistance." In Sharpened Edge: Women of Color, Resistance and Writing, ed. Stephanie Athey. Westport, CT: Prager, 2003.

Griffin, Farah Jasmine, ed. Beloved Sisters and Loving Friends: Letters From Rebecca Primus of Royal Oak Maryland, and Addie Brown of Hartford, Conneticut, 1854-1868. New york: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999.

          . "Black Feminists and Du Bois: Respectablility, Protections, and Beyond." In The Study of African American Problems: W.E.B. Du Bois's Agenda, Then and Now. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2000.

Guy-Sheftall, Beverly. "Black Feminism in the United States." In Upon These Shores: Themes in the African American Experience, 1600 to the Present, eds William R. Scott and William G. Shade. Routledge: New York, 2000.

          . "Black Feminist Studies: The Case of Anna Julia Cooper." African American Review 43, no. 1 (Spring 2009): 11-15.

          . "The Body Politic: Black Female Sexuality and the Nineteenth Century Euro-American Imagination." In Skin Deep, Spirit Strong: The Black Female Body in American Culture, ed. Kimberley Wallace-Sanders. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002.

          . Daughters of Sorrow: Attitudes Toward Black Women, 1880-1920.Brooklyn, NY: Carlson, 1990.

          . "Evolution of Feminist Consciousness Among African American Women." In Words of Fire: An Anthology of African American Feminist Thought, ed. Beverly Guy-Sheftall. New York: New Press, 1995.

Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd. "'The Mind that Burns in Each Body': Women , Rape, and Racial Violence." In Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality, eds. Ann Snitnow, Christine Stansell and Sharon Thompson. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983.

Hanson, Joyce A. Mary McLeod Bethume and Black Women's Political Activism. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2003.

Harley, Sharon. "Mary Church Terrell: Genteel Militant." In Black Leaders of the Nineteenth Century, eds. Litwack, Leon F and August Meier. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.

          . "Northern Black Female Workers: Jacksonian Era." In The Afro American Woman: Struggles and Images, eds. Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn. Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press, 1978.

Harley, Sharon and Rosalyn Terborg, eds. The Afro-American Woman: Struggles and Images. Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press, 1978.

Harris, Cheryl I. "Finding Sojourner's Truth: Race, Gender and the Insitution of Property." Cardoza Law Review 18 (November 1996): 309+.

Harris, Duchess. Black Feminist Politics From Kennedy to Clinton. New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2009.

Higginbotham, Evelyn Brooks. "African-American Women's History and the Metalanguage of Race." Signs: Journal of Women Culture and Society 12, no. 2 (1992): 251-74. Reprinted in "We Specialize in the Wholly Impossible": A Reader in Black Women's History, edited by Darlene Clark Hine and Wilma King. (Brooklyn: Carlson Publishing, 1995). Reprinted in Feminism and History, ed. Joan Wallach Scott. (New York: Oxford Universtiy Press, 1996).

          . "Beyond the Sound of Silence: Afro-American Women in History." Gender & History 1, no. 1 (1989): 50-67.

          . "Clubwomen and Electoral Politics in the 1920s." In African American Women and the Vote, 1837-1965, eds.Ann D. Gordon and Bettye Collier-Thomas, et al. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.

          . Righteous Discontent: The Women's Movement in the Black Baptist Church 1880-1920. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993.

Higginbotham, Elizabeth, and Sarah Watts. "The New Scholarship on Afro-American Women." Women's Studies Quarterly 16, nos. 1-2 (1988): 12-21.

Hine, Darlene Clark. "African American Women and Their Communinities in the Twentieth Century: The Foundation and Future of Black Women's Studies." Black women, Gendr, & Families, 1, no. 1 (spring 2007): 1-23.

          . Black Women in America: From Colonial Times Through the Nineteenth Century. 4 Vols. Brooklyn, NY: Carlson Publishing , 1990.

          . "Black Women Physicians in America: The Pioneers, 1864-1925." Hampton University Journal of Ethnic Studies (1985).

          . "Black Women's History, White Women's History: The Juncture of Race and Calss." Journal of Women's History 4, no. 2 (1992): 125-134.

          . "Female Slave Resistance: The Economics of Sex." Western Journal of Black Studies 3 (Summer 1979): 123-27.

          . Hine Sight: Black Women and the Re-Construction of American History. Bloomington:Indiana University Press, 1997. Originally published (Brooklyn, NY:Carlson Publishing, 1994).

          . "'In the Kingdom of Culture': Black Women and the Intersection of Race, Gender and Class." In Lure and Laoathing: Essays on Race, Identity, and the Ambivalence of Assimilation, ed. Gerald Early. New York: Allen Lane Penguin, 1993.

          . "Lifting the Veil, Shattering the Silence: Black Women's History in Slavery and Freedom." In The State of Afro-American History, ed. Darlene Clark Hine. Baton Rouge: Louisanna State University Press, 1986.

          . "Rape and the Inner Lives of Black Women in the Middle West: Preliminary Thoughts on the Culture of Dissemblance." In Words of Fire: An Anthology of African-American Feminist Thought, ed. Beverly Guy-Sheftall. New York: New Press, 1995. Originally published in Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 14, no. 4 (1988): 912-920.

          . "To Be Gifted, Female, and Black." In Women in Africa and the African Diaspora: A Reader, eds. Rosalyn Terborg-Penn and Andrea Benton Rushing. Washington, D.C.: Harvard University Press, 1996.

Hine, Darlene Clark and Wilma King, eds. "We Specialize in the Wholly Impossible": A Reader in Black Women's History.Brooklyn: Carlson Publishing, 1995.

Hine, Darlene Clark, and Kate Wittenstein. "Female Slave Resistance: The Economics of Sex." In The Black Woman Cross-Culturally, ed. Filomina Chioma Steady. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman, 1981.

Hunter, Andrea G., and Sherrill L. Sellers. "Feminist Attitudes Among African American Women and Men." Gender & Society 12, no. 1 (1998): 81-99.

Hunter, Tera W. To 'Joy My Freedom: Southern Black Women's Lives and Labor After the Civil War. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Jackson, Lynnette, and Robin D. G. Kelley. "Critical Black History: A Symposium." Socialism and Democracy 17, no. 2 (Winter Spring 2003): 265-375)

James, Joy. "Ella Baker, Black Women's Work and Activist Intellectuals. The Black Scholar 24, no. 4 (Fall 1994): 8-15.

          . "Framing the Panther: Assata Shakur and Black Female Agency." In Want to Start a Revolution?: Radical Women in the Black Freedom Struggle, eds. Dayo F. Gore, Jeanne Theoharis, and Komozi Woodward. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

          . "The Profeminist Politics of W.E.B. Du Bois with Respects to Anna Julia Cooper and Ida B. Wells Barnett." In W.E.B. Du Bois and Culture: Philosophy, Politics, and Poetics, eds. Bernard W. Bell, Emily R. Grosholtz and Stewart B. James. New York: Routledge, 1996.

          . "Radicalizing Feminisms from 'The Movement' Era." In Cultural Studies: From Theory to Action, ed. Pepi Leistyna. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.

          . "Searching for a Tradition: African-American Women Writers, Activists, and Interracial Rape Cases." In Black Women in America, ed. Kim Marie Vaz. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1995.

          . Transcending the Talented Tenth: Black Leaders and American Intellectuals. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Jones, Beverly W. "Race, Sex, and Class: Black Female Tobacco Workers in Durham, North Carolina, 1920-1940, and the Development of Female Consciopusness." Feminist Studies 10, no. 3 (1984): 441-451.

Jones, Jacqueline. Labor of Love Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work and the Family, From Slavery to the Present. New York: Random House, 1985.

          . "My Mother Was Much of A Woman: Black Women, Work, and the Family Under Slavery." Feminist Studies 8, no. 2 (1982): 235-269.

          . "Too Soon to Celebrate." Women's Review of Books 17, no. 5 (February 2000): 15.

Jones, Martha. All Bound Up Together: The Woman Question in Afriocan American Public Culture, 1830-1900 Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Keller, Frances Richardson. "An Educational Controversy: Anna Julia Cooper's Vision of Resolution." NWSA Journal 11, no. 3 (Fall 1999): 49-67.

Kelley, Robin D. G. "'This Battlefield Called Life': Black Feminist Dreams." In Freedom Dreams: The Black Radical Imagination. Boston: Beacon Press, 2002

Knupfer, Anne Meis. "'Toward a Tendered Humanity and a Nobler Womanhood': African American Women's Clubs in Chicago, 1890-1920." Journal of Women's History 7, no. 3 (1995): 58-76.

Lerner, Gerda. "Black and White Women in Interaction and Confrontation." In The Majority Finds its Past: Placing Women in History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

          . "Black Women in the United States: A Problem in Historiography and Interpretation." In The Majority Finds its Past: Placing Women in History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

          . "Black Women in White America." In Feminism and 'Race', ed. Kum Kum Bhavnanai. New York: Oxford Universtiy Press, 2001.

          . ed. Black Women in White America: A Documentary History. New York: Random House, 1972.

          . The Majority Finds it's Past: Placing Women in History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Mann, Susan A. "Slavery, Sharecropping, and Sexual Inequality." Signs: Journal of Women, Culture, and Society 14, no. 4 (1989): 774-798.

Marable, Manning. ":Groundings With My Sisters: Patriarchy and the Exploitation of Black Women." In Traps: African American Men on Gender and Sexuality, eds. Rudolph P. Byrd and Beverly Guy-Sheftall. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Martin, Joan. "A Womanist Investigation of the Work Ethic of Antebellum Enslaved Women, 1830-1865." In Perspectives on Womanist Theology, ed. Jacquelyn Grant. Atlanta: ITC Press, 1995.

Matina, Anne F. "'Corporation Tools and Time-Serving Slaves': Class and Gender in the Rhetoric of Antebellum Labor Reform. Howard Journal of Communications 7, no. 2 (1994): 151-168.

May, Vivian M. Anna Julia Cooper, Visionary Black Feminist: A Critical Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2007.

          . "Writing the Self Into Being: Anna Julia Cooper's Textual Politics." African American Review 43, no. 1 (Spring 2009): 17-34.

McClaurin, Irma, ed. Black Feminist Anthropology: Theory, Politics, Praxis, and Poetics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001.

McCluskey, Audrey Thomas and Elaine M. Smith. "Womanist Activism: 'We're Being Heard' (1917-1949)." In Mary McLeod Bethune: Building a Better World. Essays and Selected documents. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

McDuffie, Erik S. "'I wanted a communist philosophy, but I wanted us to have a chance to organize our people': The Diasporic Radicalism of Queen Mother Audley Moore and the Origins of Black Power." African and Black Diaspora: An International Journal 3, no. 2 (July 2010): 181-195.

          . "Esther V. Cooper's 'The Negro Woman Domestic Worker in Relation to Trade Unionism': Black Left Feminism and the Popular Front." American Communist History 7, no. 2 (2008): 203-209.

          . "The March of Young Southern Black Women: Esther Cooper Jackson, Black Left Feminism, and the Personal and Political Costs of Cold War Repression." In Anticommunism and the African American Freedom Movement, eds. Robbie Lieberman and Clarence Lang. New York: Palgrave Macmillian, 2009.

          . "'No Small Change Can Do': Esther Cooper Jackson and the Making of a Black Left Feminist." In Want to Start a Revolution?: Radical Women in the Black Freedom Struggle, eds. Dayo F. Gore, Jeanne Theoharis, and Komozi Woodward. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

McShine, Lilly. "Black Feminist Language." Kinesis (February 2000): 9.

Moody Turner, Shirley, and James Stewart. "Gendering Africana Studies: Insights From Anna Julia Cooper." African American Review 43, no. 1 (Spring 2009): 17-34.

Morton, Patricia. Disfigured Images: The Historical Assault on Afro-American Women. New York: Praeger, 1991.

Nadasen, Premilla. "'We Do Whatever Becomes Necessary: Johnnie Tillmon, Welfare Rights, and Black Power." In Want to Start a Revolution?: Radical Women in the Black Freedom Struggle, eds. Dayo F. Gore, Jeanne Theoharis, and Komozi Woodward. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

          . Welfare Warriors: The Welfare Rights Movement in the United States. New York: Routledge, 2005.

Nelson, Jennifer. "'An act of valor for a woman need not take place inside of her': Black Women, Feminism, and Reproductive Rights." In Women of Color and the Reproductive Rights Movement. New York: New York University Press, 2005.

Neverdon-Morton, Cynthia. "The Black Woman's Struggle for Equality in the South, 1895-1925." In The Afro-American Woman: Struggles and Images, eds. Sharon Harley and Rosalyn Terborg-Penn. Baltimore, MD: Black Classic Press, 1978.

Noble, Jeanne. Beautiful, Also, Are the Souls of My Black Sisters: A History of Black Women in America.Englewwod Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1978.

Norman, Brian. "'We' in Redux: The Combahee River Collective's Black Feminist Statement." Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 18, no. 2 (2007): 103-132.

Ogunleye, Tolagbe. "Dr. Martin Robinson Delany, 19th Century Africana womanist: Reflections on his Avant-Garde Politics Concerning Gender, Colorism, and Nation Building." Journal of Black Studies 28, no. 5 (May 1998): 628+.

Omolade, Barbara. "Hearts of Darkness." In The Rising Song of African American Women.Barbara Omolade. New York: Routledge, 1994. Originally published in Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality, eds. Christine Stansell and Sharon Thompson (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983).Reprinted in Words of Fire: An Anthology of African-American Feminist Though, ed. Beverly Guy-Sheftall, (New York: New Press, 1995).

          . "Gender in Black." The Rising Song of African American Women. New York: Routledge, 1994.

          . "Lay Down this World." In The Rising Song of African American Women. New York: Routledge, 1994.

          . "The Unbroken Circle: A Historical Study of Black Single Mothers and Their Families." The Rising Song of African American Women. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Peterson, Carla L. Doers of the Word: African American Women Speakers & Writers in the North (1830-1880). New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1995.

Painter, Nell Irvin. "Panther Sisters on Women's Liberation." In Off the Pigs: The History and Literature of the Black Panther Party, ed. G. Louis Heath. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1976.

Randolf, Sherie M. "'Women's Liberation or ...Black Liberation, You're Fighting the Same Enemies': Florynce Kennedy, Black Power, and Feminism." In Want to Start a Revolution?: Radical Women in the Black Freedom Struggle, eds. Dayo F. Gore, Jeanne Theoharis, and Komozi Woodward. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

Ransby, Barbara. Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Reagon, Bernice Johnson. "Women as Culture Carriers in the Civil Rights Movement." In Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailbalzers and Torchvearers, eds Vickie L. Crawford, Jacqueline Anne Rouse, and Barbara Woods. Brooklyn: Carlson Puyblishing, 1990.

          . Sojourner Truth: A Life, A Symbol. New York: W.W. Norton, 1996.

          . "Who Was Lynched?" In Getting There: The Movement Toward Gender Equality, ed. Diana Wells. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers/Richard Gallen, 1994.

Reagon, Bernice Johnson. "African Diaspora Women: The Making of Cultural Workers." In Women in Africa and the African Diaspora: A Reader, eds. Rosalyn Terborg-Penn and Andrea Benton Rushing. Washington, D.C.: Harvard University Press, 1996.

Rifkin, Mark. "'A Home Made Sacred by Protecting Laws': Black Activist Homemaking and Geographies of Citizenship in Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl." Diffrences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 18, no. 2 (2007): 72-102.

Robinson, Joyce Russell. "Defiance and Hope: The Christian Temperment in Nineteenth-Century African American Women's Narrative." In Perspectives on Womanist Theology, ed. Jacquelyn Grant. Atlanta: ITC Press, 1995.

Robnett, Belinda. How Long? How Long: African American Women in the Struggle for Civil Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Sanchez-Eppler, Karen. "Bodily Bonds: The Interecting Rhetorics of Feminism and Abolition." In The Culture of Sentiment: Race, Gender, and Sentimentality in Nineteeth Century America, ed. Shirley Samuels. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Scott, Anne Firror. "Most Invisible of All: Black Women's Voluntary Associations." Journal of Southern History 56, no.1 (February 1990):3-22.

Shaw, Stephanie J. What a Woman Ought to Be and to Do. Black Professional WomenWorkers During the Jim Crow Era. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Shockley, Megan Taylor. "We Too Are Americans": African American Women in Detroit and Richmond, 1940-54. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2004.

Simson, Rennie. "The Afro-American Female: The Historical Context of the Construction of Sexual Identity." In Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality, eds. Ann Snitnow, Christine Stansell and Sharon Thompson. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1983.

Springer, Kimberly. Living for the Revolution: Black Feminist Organizations, 1968-1980. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005.

Steady, Filomina Chioma. "The Black Woman Cross-Culturally: An Overview." In The Black Woman Cross-Culturally. Cambridge , MA: Schenkman, 1981.

Sterling, Dorothy, ed. We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century. New York: W.W. Norton, 1984.

Stetson, Erlene. "Black Feminism in Indiana, 1893-1933." Phylon 44, no. 4 (1983): 292-98.

Taylor, Quintard and Shirley Ann Wilson Moore, eds. African American Women Confront the West 1600-2000. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003.

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